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Model T: 1913

ENGINE SERIAL NUMBERS: 157,425 to 348,735 approx. B-1 to B-12,247 built between October 1, 1912 and January 1, 1913. There is a gap of 12,247 numbers somewhere between 157,425 and 170,000.

MODEL YEAR DATES: September 1912 to August 1913 approx.

BODY TYPES: Touring, Runabout, Town Car. The Delivery car was a “1912” model built in late 1912 during the 1913 fiscal year.

MAJOR MODEL YEAR FEATURES: See component section for details.
    the “1913” body appeared in late 1912, and was replaced by “1914” later same year (perhaps october 1912). touring modified during production attempts to overcome weakness of rear section means heavier wood sills, additional support brackets, reinforcement plates. windshield lower sloped rear, with top upright. folded forward. front compartment now fully enclosed. right door opened but left “door”was just a dummy. doors extended splash apron had rectangular shape.
   The Runabout was similar in style to the Touring. Turtle deck was new this year, and had rather sharp corners. Lamps and horn were black-painted steel with brass trim. Bodies were supplied by several manufacturers and were painted and upholstered by the suppliers until late 1913. Metal panels over wood frame. Door handles extended through the top surface. Body top sills had a separate metal trim plate.

COLORS: Initially all cars were painted a very dark blue, with either blue or black fenders. Black became the standard color early in the year. Delivery cars phased out and could be ordered in several colors. Delivery Car production ended before calendar 1913.

UPHOLSTERY: Initially full leather in the open cars, in a diamond sewn pattern. Imitation leather began to appear on the seat backs and side areas, with real leather at the very front of the arm rest.

FENDERS: Front: Similar to 1912 style. No embossed bead on the apron, or across the wide part of the front fender. Had no front bill but the front “lip” flared outward in early production, then vertical as in all later non-billed fenders. Reinforcing bead added across the wide part later in the year. Rear: Similar in style to the front. Support irons were now attached to the body framing, extending out the side of the body, through a hole in the apron of the fender, and were clamped to a single plate under the fender.

SPLASH APRON: Now longer, with bulge at the rear to clear the brake and radius rods, similar to the later 1912 cars. Fenders and aprons were painted either blue or black, this based on surviving original cars, but the dark blue is the only color indicated in Ford literature.

RUNNING BOARDS: Pressed steel with embossed diamond pattern. The Ford script now ran across the board. “Made in USA” appeared on all boards.

HOOD: Aluminum, with no louvers. Hinges were separate from the panels, and riveted in place. Hold-down clamps had two “ears” and were of forged steel. Handles were now forged steel, replacing the aluminum type used earlier.

DASHBOARD (Firewall): Wood, with flat brass edge trim. Board now mated with the body side panels.

CHASSIS: Rear body support a separate forging bolted to the rear of the frame. Painted black. An extra body bracket was installed, just ahead of the rear seat, to support the rear section of the touring body. During the year (“after the first 114,000 1913 cars”...about mid-May 1913) the rear cross-member was lengthened, eliminating the need for the forged body brackets.

STEERING COLUMN ASSEMBLY: Brass quadrant, brass-plated spark and throttle levers, with flattened metal ends replaced the rubber knobs. Gear case was brass, riveted assembly. Wheel was 15” outside diameter, wood, and painted black. The wheel spider was iron and painted black. Column was 56” long on all cars.

FRONT AXLE: Same as the 1912 cars.

REAR AXLE: Cast center section, introduced in later 1912, with the axle tubes flared and riveted to it. This axle then continued into early 1915. The “1913-style” rear axles used a hex-head drain plug instead of the slotted type used earlier.

DRIVESHAFT HOUSING: Pinion bearing spool was a casting and was held by studs and nuts, the studs being enclosed (not visible) in the housing. Separate front housing for universal joint assembly discontinued later in the year.

REAR RADIUS AND BRAKE RODS: Had forged ends. Brake rod support brackets extended out and wrapped down and around the rods.

WHEELS: Used 30 by 3 tires in front; 30 by 3-1/2 in the rear. Original tires had no tread. Hub flanges are 6 inches in diameter. Front wheels used ball bearings. Hub caps had “Ford” in script letters. “Made in USA” on all caps.

SPRINGS: Tapered-leaf, front and rear. “Figure eight” style shackles, similar to the earlier type but not so ornate. The use of the brass oilers was continued.

RADIATOR: Supplied by Ford with the standard Ford script. “Made in USA” on all radiators under the Ford script. The filler neck was now a spun brass design, riveted and soldered in place.

ENGINE: Closed valve type as in 1912. Serial number above the water inlet. Pipe plug water jacket seals were replaced with pressed in welch plugs during the year, with mixed production of both types. New camshaft and slightly lower compression introduced in late 1912. The cylinder head on early models had threaded holes for priming cups on the left side.

ENGINE PAN: Early production used the “three dip” with narrow front “snout” and “teacup” oil drain. The mounting arms were held with three rivets instead of seven. The drain plug was now 15/16” hex-head instead of a slotted screw. The “teacup” drain pocket was discontinued late in the year.

OIL FILLER CAP: The mushroom-shaped cap, of brass, with six flutes and the Ford script appeared on all models. “Made in USA” stamped under the “Ford” was now standard.

ENGINE CRANK: Aluminum formed handle, painted black.

ENGINE FAN: Driven by a leather belt from a pulley at the front of the engine. The fan hub was brass (bronze), with the blades riveted in place. Adjustment was by means of a bolt/nut arrangement now located on the right side of the front plate and bearing against a boss on the mounting end of the fan bracket.

MANIFOLDS: Exhaust was cast iron; pipe fits inside the threaded end and was packed with asbestos and held with a brass nut. The exhaust manifold and pipe were modified so that the pipe flared at the manifold and was held in place with the brass nut but with no packing. Intake was aluminum and is more curved than the usual design.

CARBURETORS: Kingston “four ball” or Holley Model S.

CARBURETOR STOVE: Several designs, all of which rose vertically at the rear of the carburetor and mated with the exhaust manifold at the rear area.

MUFFLER: Cast iron ends, mounted with pressed metal brackets. Longer, curved rear exhaust pipe extension integral with the rear cover plate. Wrapped with asbestos, secured with three steel straps. The asbestos was specified to be dyed black.

FUEL TANK: Cylindrical, under the front seat. Mounting brackets now clamped to the tank. The outlet was between the center and the right side, between the frame rails.

TRANSMISSION: Three pedal standard-design. Pedals were marked with “C,” “R,” and “B.” Transmission cover was cast aluminum. Tapered inspection door, held with six screws. The door was now a plain metal plate with no script.

COIL BOX ASSEMBLY: Kingston, K-W, Heinze, or Ford. The Ford box used the standard-size coils.

LAMPS: Made by Edmond and Jones (E&J), Brown, Corcoran or Victor. All were painted black with brass trim, replacing the all-brass types used until late 1912.

HORN: Bulb type, single twist. Black and brass style.

WINDSHIELD: Rands, Vanguard, Diamond, or Standard. Painted black. Lower section leaned back, while top section was vertical. Top section folded forward. Painted black.

TOP: (Open cars). Top color was black on all open cars. Oval top sockets. Front attached to the windshield hinge with a strap, similar to 1912.

SPEEDOMETER: Stewart Model 26 in black and brass on early cars, then Stewart Model 100.

TURTLE DECK (on Runabout): Similar in style to later types except that its corners were rather sharp. Handles were brass but painted black.

 

1913 Changes

 

JAN 3 Acc. 575, Letter 389, Ford Archives
T-518-B Exhaust Pack Nut, T-511-B Exhaust Pipe, etc. specified. This new design replaces the old style where the pipe fit into the manifold. The pipe now has a flange, typical of all later Model T's.

 

JAN 24 Acc. 575, Letter 394, Ford Archives
T-518-B Exhaust Pack Nut. "This design never used. We have therefore marked drawing obsolete under date 1-20-13." T-518 (old number) revised to conform to new pipe design.
T-5403 Touring Car Body. "Called for reinforcing sills to be fastened to the top of the regular body sills by #14 x 2" F.H.W.S. (4 screws for each sill) the reinforcing sill to reach from the rear of the front heel board to the front of rear heel board, the sill to the 1" thick, and the sides in line with those on the regular body sill. This means of course that the rear sill plates will have to be put on top of the reinforcing sill. We have called for a filler between the reinforcing sill and the inside of circular panel at the rear edge of rear door, the filler to be nailed and glued in place." Note continues regarding the use of more nails to hold the body metal in place.

 

JAN 28 Acc. 575, Letter 395, Ford Archives
T-5637 Body Reinforcing Bracket Bolt. "Four required, Touring Car, 1913."
T-5453 Body Reinforcing Bracket. New Drawing. "Two required, Touring Car, 1913."
T-5638. Sketch showing location of Body Reinforcing Bracket. "We have made this sketch for the purpose of showing customers who are having trouble with the touring car bodies how the trouble can be overcome. The material has been ordered and we will be able to supply same in the near future. For your information will state that the construction of the body has been improved upon and undoubtedly will not need this reinforcement as soon at the change can be brought about. We will therefore order only enough material of the above parts as shown on sketch to take care of the bodies which have already been built."

 

FEB 4 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
Runabouts supplied with turtle deck only. "No rumble seats."

 

FEB 8 Acc. 575, Letter 398, Ford Archives
T-4332 Hub Brake Cable. "We have changed the diameter from 1/4" to 15/64"." Had also changed the size of the wires and the number of wires that made up this cable.

 

FEB 12 (Letter from Ford to the Chicago branch)
"We have decided to place an extra body bracket just beneath the tonneau door hinge of the Touring Car body, extending from the frame of the body sill as you will observe from blue print enclosed. We have entered order to send you one hundred pair of these brackets and we want you to put them on every car now in stock. It is also our object to supply larger dealers with a quantity of these brackets so that they can install them before the cars are put out on the road next spring. The purpose of this bracket is to stiffen the body sill and prevent too much play in the door when the top is down, also binding in the door when the top straps are drawn up too tightly."
Installation instructions followed with hints on how to add or subtract shim washers in order to align the doors.

 

MAR 4 Letter, Ford to the Cincinnati branch
"In attaching the Touring Car body reinforcing brackets, be sure they are fitted 1/8" to 3/16" from the top of the frame so that when the bolts are put in it will pull the sill down. Unless the sill is sprung down 1/8" or so when the bracket is attached but little benefit will be derived by the reinforcement. All bodies coming through from now on will be fitted with heavier sills so that attachment of extra brackets will be unnecessary."

 

MAR 5 Acc. 575, Letter 404, Ford Archives
General description of revised muffler, now using tubes which are spot welded together at the seams rather than being riveted as previously. Initially the shells (tubes) would be made to conform to the size of the cast end pieces until the supply of old stock was used up. The old diameter was 5 inches while the new one was 5-1/4 inches.

 

MAR 15 Acc. 575, Letter 406, Ford Archives
New frame with longer rear cross-member was described. Old parts to be used for replacement only. Notes that this frame will be used on a number of cars initially but the number was unknown at the time.

 

MAR 29 Acc. 575, Letter 410, Ford Archives
1914 coil unit noted. No details as to what it was.
It may have been the K-W design which became standard in 1913.

 

APR 5 Acc. 575, Letter 411, Ford Archives
T-5464 Front Fender Peak. "This peak to be added for fitting up the front fenders which we are now using so that they may be used on 1911 and 1912 cars. This peak nearly makes the appearance of the fenders conform to the appearance of the fenders on the 1911 and 1912 cars. If however a customer should call for a set of front fenders to be used for repairs, it would not be necessary to add this peak." This peak was to be riveted in place, using just one rivet.

 

APR 12 Acc. 575, Letter 413, Ford Archives
Coil box parts (T-5807 through T-5857) listed but no details. This may have been the Ford-made, K-W designed, standard coil box. Previously the coil box assemblies were purchased outside.

 

APR 16 Acc. 575, Letter 415, Ford Archives
T-4099 Sediment Bulb assembly. Parts listed for new pressed-steel sediment bulb which was to be used in production and for repairs. Old brass bulb obsoleted. In letter #419, May 3, the assembly was given part number T-5859.

 

APR 27 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
Windshields manufactured by Rands, Vanguard and Diamond Mfg. Co.

 

MAY Acc. 575, Box 19, Ford Archives
Note indicates the longer rear cross-member "after 114,000 1913 cars."
Other records indicate 1913 production began with 157,425 on October 1, 1912, which would make the new cross-member at or about 271,425. (May 16, 1913.)

 

MAY 1 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
Change in valve timing, apparently made in late 1912 or early 1913, is noted in a letter to the branches.

 

MAY 29 Acc. 575, Letter 423, Ford Archives
Some 1914 Touring body parts listed.

 

MAY 29 Acc. 575, Letter 424, Ford Archives
T-5668 and 5669 body reinforcement for 1913 Touring body with 2-1/4" sills. T-5676 and 5677 reinforcements for bodies with 3-1/4" sills.

 

JUN 4 Acc. 509, Ford Archives
"218,900 to 242,300 built between April 1 and 30; 242,300 to 260,000 between May 1 and 31."

 

JUN 6 Acc. 575, Letter 425, Ford Archives
Location of body reinforcement bolt holes changed.

 

JUN 12 Letter from Ford to all branches
"In order that all our branches may clearly understand the handling of complaints on present touring car bodies we submit the following:
"It is expected that you will furnish all Dealers with body sill reinforcements, wood reinforcements for the rear seat frame and also rear corner brackets as shown in the attached blue print. To make a satisfactory and permanent repair all of this material should be put in. We have found that the sills break most frequently within a few inches of the rear end and in such cases the rear corner brackets will serve to bind the sills together. The wood reinforcements in the rear seat will relieve the rear ends of the sills from all strain, consequently there is no necessity of replacing the sills on account of the wood splitting at the end. In applying the steel stamping underneath the tonneau door you will find it necessary to chisel out the wood at the lower rear corner on all Beaudett bodies and perhaps shim up other makes of bodies where the bracket spreads out at the rear.
"As this body trouble is going to be more or less general perhaps you had better employ one or two good body men to do this work. We believe this will be better that to leave the work to the ordinary shop mechanics to handle. As the season advances you will probably have a great deal of this work to do and you might as well prepare for it now."

 

JUN 14 Acc. 575, Letter 426, Ford Archives
T-1314 Hood handle. "Redesigned, and change material from pressed steel to aluminum casting."
Body brackets (5668, 5669, 5676 and 5677) revised again. Now have two bolt holes at the front end, instead of three. Also specified 5/16 x 2-1/8 inch carriage bolts to be used instead of 5/16 x 1-1/2 inch lag screws be used. (Step bolts were specified instead of carriage bolts in later notes regarding these brackets.)

 

JUN 28 Acc. 575, Letter 430, Ford Archives
Noted changes in the transmission cover door material (not in the design). Stated that the cover door is to be "pickled and annealed." No mention of paint. The finish had been mentioned in previous letters, and was the same as in this letter.

 

JUL 1 Acc. 575, Letter 431, Ford Archives
Many notes on 1914 Touring body which would seem to indicate that this body was now used in production.

 

JUL 5 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
260,000 to 282,700 built June 1 to 30.
Note: These numbers are the number of engines built at the main Ford plant. Engines with these serial numbers were built on May 1913. The variance was due to the 12,247 B-numbered engines used in the last three months of 1912 (beginning of fiscal 1913 production).

 

JUL 10 Acc. 575, Letter 433, Ford Archives
T-4099 Pressed-steel sediment bulb and its components apparently never used. Brass bulb and parts were again specified for production, as apparently they had always been. Noted that gasoline tanks which had been built to accommodate the pressed-steel bulb could be repunched and by using a larger reinforcement (T-4097) to cover the holes these tanks could be used with the brass bulb.

 

JUL 14 Acc. 575, Letter 434, Ford Archives
Noted that 1913 Touring bodies were made by Herbert, Fisher, Wilson, and Beaudett. Apparently the Beaudett bodies differed in construction from the others. Beaudett bodies with a filler block on the rear door hinge posts apparently did not need the steel reinforcing pieces.

 

JUL 14v Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
1913 cars used new style exhaust manifold and pipe. (Pipe now has the flanged end.)
"Babbitt driveshaft bearing used in first 18,000 cars." (1909-10)

 

JUL 16 Acc. 575, Ford Archives
"Engine 300,000 built at 1:25 P.M." (Engine production records indicate this was built on June 26, 1913. This was the 300,000th engine built at the main Ford plant, NOT serial number 300,000. The variation is due to the 12,247 B-numbered engines used in the last three months of 1912.)

 

JUL 28 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
"1914" prices effective August 1, 1913: Touring, $550. Runabout, $500. Town Car, $750.

 

JUL 28 Acc. 833, Photo 75, Ford Archives
Photo of 1914-type Touring body with 1913 windshield, and wheels which are striped. (No body striping.)

 

JUL 30 Acc. 575, Letter 439, Ford Archives
New design of turtle deck on Torpedos (Runabouts) noted for 1914 models. This was probably the change from the "square" corners to the rounded ones. Also a note under Gas Lamp brackets noted, "and since we are contemplating the use of electric headlamps, we would not use more of these brackets ...."

 

AUG 4 Acc. 575, Letter 440, Ford Archives
T-528-B Starting Crank Ratchet. "We have redesigned the shape of the notches, and to show the new design we have added special sketch giving the development of the outside surface of notches when bent in place. We ask that you kindly call the attention of the people who are to make these ratchets to the fact that this sketch does not show the correct shape of these notches when in the blank before being drawn, which shape will have to be determined by cutting and trying....."
The note continues but seems to indicate that the pressed steel ratchet was still being used.

 

AUG 5 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
282,700 to 298,200 built July 1 to 31.

 

AUG 29 Acc. 575, Letter 446, Ford Archives
T-1215 Muffler asbestos. "Removed note specifying this asbestos to be dyed black."

 

SEP 4 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
298,200 to 306,800 built August 1 to 30. (See notes under July 5 and July 16 above.)

 

SEP 27 Acc. 575, Letter 450, Ford Archives
T-55 Brake Shoe revised to be made in one piece again.

 

OCT 13 Acc. 1701, Box 3, Ford Archives
Added "T-8 (nut) Two required as radius rod ball cap nuts." (Studs and nuts replaced the screws used previously.)

 

OCT 18 Acc. 575, Letter 455, Ford Archives
T-800-D Crankcase. Noted changes made earlier in which the separate drain cup had been replaced by just stamping the crankcase instead. (The "drain cup" refers to the "teacup" pan used until sometime in 1913.)

 

NOV 4 Acc. 509, Letter to all branches, Ford Archives
306,800 to 314,800 built September 1 to 30. (See notes under July 5 and July 16 above.) Announced that speedometers will no longer be supplied on cars for a few months, and that a credit of $6 will be allowed on the price of the car. They said that as soon as a satisfactory replacement unit was found, they would supply it at the $6 price for installation on customer's cars. Furthermore, the branches would not be allowed to buy speedometers for customers.

 

NOV 18 Acc. 509, Letter, Ford Archives
60-inch tread to be discontinued. (But wasn't.)

 

NOV 24 Letter from Ford to the Denver branch)
"Kindly give us by return mail your present inventory of the following:
T-5668 reinforcement, right
T-5669 reinforcement, left
T-5675 rear seat frame reinforcement
T-5678 rear corner bracket."
These are the 1913 touring body reinforcement parts.

 

FACTORY LETTER TO BRANCHES
FROM: Ford Motor Company, Detroit Office
December 2, 1913
The following is a revised list of paints and our new numbers for same, kindly order all paints by these numbers:
F-101 1763 First Coat Elastic Black Japan, Fenders and Shields
F-102 1001 Second Coat Black Japan, Fenders and shields
F-103 258 First Coat Blue Dipping, Hoods & Rear Axles
F-104 1355 Second Coat Quick Drying Black, Rear Axles
F-105 40 First Coat Brushing Black Japan, Front Axles
F-106 459 Second Coat Brushing Black Japan, Front Axles
F-107 450 Blue Black Baking, Coil Box
F-108 1843 First Coat Black Wheel Surfacer, Wheels
F-109 260 Second Coat Blue Color Varnish, Wheels
F-110 417 Second Coat Black Brushing, Frame
F-111 488 First Coat Red Baking Metal Body Primer, Body
F-112 66 Black Glaze Putty — Second Operation Body, Body
F-113 948 Second Coat Blue Ground, Body
F-114 619 Solid Rubbing Body Blue, Repairs only
F-115 480 3rd & 4th Coat Body Spraying Blue Color Varnish, Body
F-116 908 5th Coat Black Striping Color, Not used regularly
F-117 1435 Fine French Gray Deep Striping, Wheels
F-118 1761 Oil Proof Steel Blue, Painting Machines
F-119 896 Black Engine Dipping, Finishing Crank Cases
F-120   White Cold Water Paint
F-121   Ivory Drop Black "E"
F-122   Black Radiator Paste
This list supersedes all previous ones that we have mailed you.
Ford Motor Company
Manufacturing Department

 

DEC 9 Acc. 575, Letter 462, Ford Archives
Noted that the 1/2" pipe plugs used for water jacket seals were no longer used.

 

DEC 27 Acc. 575, Letter 463, Ford Archives
T-543-B Oil Tube. Now specified as having mounting ear integral with the funnel instead of the separate clamp. The clamps would continue to be made until the supply of old tubes was used up.